Climate change and Indian Agriculture Climate change impacts on agriculture are being witnessed all over the world, but countries like India are more vulnerable in view of the huge population dependent on agriculture, excessive pressure on natural resources and poor coping mechanisms. The warming trend in India over the past 100 years has indicated on increase of 0.60°C. The projected impacts are likely to further aggravate field fluctuations of many crops thus impacting food security. There are already evidences of negative impacts on yield of wheat and paddy in parts of India due to increased temperature, water-stress and reduction in number of rainy days. Significant negative impacts have been projected with medium-term (2010-2039) climate change, e.g. yield reduction by 4.5 to 9%, depending on the magnitude and distribution of warming. Since agriculture makes up roughly 15% of India's GDP, a 4.5 to 9.0% negative impact on production implies cost of climate change to be roughly at 1.5% of GDP per year. Enhancing agricultural productivity, therefore, is critical for ensuring food and nutritional security for all, particularly the resource poor small and marginal farmers who would be affected most. In the absence of planned adaptation, the consequences of long- term climate change could be severe on the livelihood security of the poor.